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Sceala Irish Craic Forum Discussion:     Beltane Celtic Gaelic traditions Beltaine festivals Ireland

How will the people in Ireland celebrate Beltane. What Celtic traditions are still practiced in Ireland for the Summer festivals of Beltane. I would like to attend a Beltane festival on the Hill of Taea. The fire festival of Beltane in Edinburgh Scotland. Where does Ireland hold their national Beltane Festival? I can't find reference to a national Beltane event, am I looking in the wrong section?
Photos and videos of Beltane. The ancient Irish summer festival.
Irish song about Beltane. This is the Beltane Fire festival, lots of naked and semi naked females, looks totally awesome. Ireland the home of Beltane would be even better.
Beltane
Edinburgh’s Beltane festivals traditionally takes place on the 30th of April every year on Calton Hill.
Edinburgh’s Beltane festivals originates in the Scottish and Irish Gaelic pre-Christian festivals of the same name.

The name itself is thought to have derived from a Irish Gaelic-Celtic word meaning ‘bright/sacred fire’. It was held to mark and celebrate the blossoming of spring, and coincided with the ancient pastoral event of moving livestock to their summer grazing. It did not occur on any fixed solar date (the tradition of solstices and equinoxes is later in origin) but tended to be held on the first full moon after the modern 1st of May. Some sources suggest that the blooming of the Hawthorn was the primary signal for the event before the development of centralised calendars.

It was a celebration of the fertility of the land and their animals. The main traditional element which was common to all Beltane festivals was the fire which gave it its name. All the fires of the community would be extinguished and a new, sacred ‘Need Fire’ was lit by either the village head or spiritual leader. From this source one or two bonfires were lit, and the animals of the community would be driven through or between them. It was believed that the smoke and flame of the fires would purify the herd, protecting them in the year to come and ensuring a good number of offspring. The inhabitants of the village would then take pieces of the fire to their homes and relight their hearths, and dance clockwise around the bonfires to ensure good portents for them and their families.
Beltane
Also called Lá Bealtaine, Bealltainn, Beltain, Beltaine, Boaltinn, Boaldyn, Belotenia, Gŵyl Galan Mai
Observed by Gaels, Irish people, Scottish people, Manx people, Neopagans, and Welsh people
Type Religious (Celtic polytheism, Celtic Neopaganism, Wicca) seasonal
Date sunset 30 April - sunset of 1 May (N. Hemisphere)
sunset 31 October - sunset 1 November (S. Hemisphere)
Celebrations Traditional first day of summer in Ireland, Scotland and Isle of Man
Related to Walpurgis Night, May Day

Beltane or Beltaine is the anglicised spelling of Old Irish Bel(l)taine or Beltine ( modern Irish Bealtaine, Scottish Gaelic Bealltainn ), the Gaelic name for either the month of May or the festival that takes place on first day of May.

Bealtaine was historically a Gaelic Celtic festival celebrated in Ireland, Scotland and the Isle of Man. Bealtaine and Samhain were the leading terminal dates of the civil year in medieval Ireland, though the latter festival was the more important. The festival regained popularity during the Celtic Revival and remains observed in the Celtic Nations and the Irish diaspora.

In Irish Gaelic, the month of May is known as Mí Bhealtaine or Bealtaine, and the festival as Lá Bealtaine ('day of Bealtaine' or, 'May Day'). In Scottish Gaelic, the month is known as either (An) Cèitean or a' Mhàigh, and the festival is known as Latha Bealltainn or simply Bealltainn. The feast was also known as Céad Shamhain or Cétshamhainin from which the word Céitean derives. Beltane was formerly spelled 'Bealtuinn' in Scottish Gaelic; in Manx it is spelt 'Boaltinn' or 'Boaldyn'. In Modern Irish, Oidhche Bealtaine or Oíche Bealtaine is May Eve, and Lá Bealtaine is May Day. Mí na Bealtaine, or simply Bealtaine is the name of the month of May.

In Neopaganism, Bealtaine is considered a cross-quarter day, marking the midpoint in the Sun's progress between the spring equinox and summer solstice. The astronomical date for this midpoint is closer to 5 May or 7 May, but this can vary from year to year.[1]
History of Beltane or Beltaine Celtic Gaelic traditions in Ireland.
Celtic Period
According to Nora Chadwick, in Celtic Ireland "Beltine (or Beltaine) was celebrated on 1 May, a spring-time festival of optimism. Fertility rigual again was important, in part perhaps connecting with the waxing power of the sun, sympblized by the lighting of fires through which livestock were driven, and around which the people danced in a sunwise direction"[2]

In Irish mythology, the beginning of the summer season for the Tuatha Dé Danann and the Milesians started at Bealtaine. Great bonfires would mark a time of purification and transition, heralding in the season in the hope of a good harvest later in the year, and were accompanied with ritual acts to protect the people from any harm by Otherworldly spirits, such as the Aos Sí. Like the festival of Samhain, opposite Beltane on 31 October Beltane was also a time when the Otherworld was seen as particularly close at hand.

In Gaelic folkore, the village's cattle were driven between two fires to purify them and bring luck (Eadar dà theine Bhealltainn in Scottish Gaelic, 'Between two fires of Beltane'). This term is also found in Irish and is used as a turn of phrase to describe a situation which is difficult to escape from. In Scotland, boughs of juniper were sometimes thrown on the fires to add an additional element of purification and blessing to the smoke. People would also pass between the two fires to purify themselves.

Medieval Period of Beltane or Beltaine Celtic Gaelic traditions in Ireland.
In medieval Ireland, the main Bealtaine fire was held on the central hill of Uisneach 'the navel of Ireland', one of the ritual centres of the country, which is located in what is now County Westmeath.[citation needed] The lighting of bonfires on Oidhche Bhealtaine seems to have survived to the present day only in County Limerick, especially in Limerick itself, as their yearly bonfire night and in County Wicklow in Arklow[citation needed], though some cultural groups have expressed an interest in reviving the custom at Uisneach and perhaps at the Hill of Tara.[3]

Beltane marked the beginning of the pastoral summer season when the herds of livestock were driven out to the summer pastures and mountain grazing lands. Due to the change from the Julian calendar to the Gregorian calendar, Bealltainn in Scotland was commonly celebrated on 15 May while in Ireland Sean Bhealtain / "Old May" began about the night of 11 May.[citation needed] The lighting of bonfires on Oidhche Bhealtaine ('the eve of Bealtaine') on mountains and hills of ritual and political significance was one of the main activities of the festival.[4][5] In modern Scottish Gaelic, Latha Buidhe Bealltainn or Là Buidhe Bealltainn ('the yellow day of Bealltain') is used to describe the first day of May. This term Lá Buidhe Bealtaine is also used in Irish and is translated as 'Bright May Day'. In Ireland it is referred to in a common folk tale as Luan Lae Bealtaine; the first day of the week (Monday/Luan) is added to emphasise the first day of summer.

20th Century Beltane or Beltaine Celtic Gaelic traditions in Ireland.
Edward Dwelly in Bealltuinn (1911) describes a 1 May custom of his day, practised in the Scottish Highlands, where young people met on the moors, lighted a bonfire and made an oatmeal cake toasted at the embers. The cake was divided, one of the pieces marked with charcoal, and, drawing the pieces blindfolded, the person who got the marked piece was compelled to leap over the flames three times.

Another common aspect of the festival which survived up until the early 20th century in Ireland was the hanging of May Boughs on the doors and windows of houses and the erection of May Bushes in farmyards, which usually consisted either of a branch of rowan/caorthann (mountain ash) or more commonly whitethorn/sceach geal (hawthorn) which is in bloom at the time and is commonly called the 'May Bush' or just 'May' in Hiberno-English. Furze/aiteann was also used for the May Boughs, May Bushes and as fuel for the bonfire. The practice of decorating the May Bush or Dos Bhealtaine with flowers, ribbons, garlands and coloured egg shells has survived to some extent among the Gaelic diaspora, most notably in Newfoundland, and in some Easter traditions observed on the East Coast of the United States.[4]

The festival persisted widely up until the 1950s, and in some places the celebration of Beltane continues today.[6][7][8]

Brythonic culture and Beltane or Beltaine Celtic Gaelic traditions in Ireland.
In Brythonic culture, i.e. in Wales, Brittany, and Cornwall, there are festivals similar to it at the same time of year such as the Padstow 'obby 'oss. In Wales, the day is known as Calan Mai. A cognate term in Continental Celtic may have been Gaulish Belotenia.[9]

Etymology of Beltane or Beltaine Celtic Gaelic traditions in Ireland.
Since the early 20th century it has been commonly accepted that Old Irish Bel(l)taine is derived from a Common Celtic *belo-te(p)niâ, meaning "bright fire" (where the element *belo- might be cognate with the English word bale [as in 'bale-fire'] meaning 'white' or 'shining'; compare Anglo-Saxon bael, and Lithuanian/Latvian baltas/balts, found in the name of the Baltic; in Slavic languages byelo or beloye also means 'white', as in Беларусь (White Russia or Belarus) or Бе́лое мо́ре [White Sea]). A more recent etymology by Xavier Delamarre would derive it from a Common Celtic *Beltinijā, cognate with the name of the Lithuanian goddess of death Giltinė, the root of both being Proto-Indo-European *gʷelH- "suffering, death".[10]

According to Dáithí Ó hÓgáin[year needed], the term Céad Shamhain or Cétshamhainin means "first half", which he links to the Gaulish word samonios (which he suggests means "half a year") as in the end of the "first half" of the year that begins at Samhain. According to Ó hÓgáin this term was also used in Scottish Gaelic and Welsh.[citation needed] In Ó Duinnín's Irish dictionary[year needed] it is referred to as Céadamh(ain) which it explains is short for Céad-shamh(ain) meaning "first (of) summer". The dictionary also states that Dia Céadamhan is May Day and Mí Céadamhan is May.

Toponymy of Beltane or Beltaine Celtic Gaelic traditions in Ireland.
Place names in Ireland that contain remnants of the word 'Bealtaine' include a number of places called 'Beltany' - indicating places where Bealtaine festivities were once held. There are three Beltanys in County Donegal-- one near Raphoe--another near Killybegs [Bealtine Bridge} and the third in the parish of Tulloghobegly. Two others are located in County Tyrone, one near Clogher and the other in the parish of Cappagh. In the parish of Kilmore, County Armagh, there is a place called Tamnaghvelton/Tamhnach Bhealtaine ('field of the Bealtaine festivities'). Lisbalting/Lios Bealtaine ('fort or enclosure of Bealtaine') is located in Kilcash Parish, County Tipperary. Glasheennabaultina ('the Bealtaine stream') is the name of a stream joining the River Galey near Athea, County Limerick.

Revival of Beltane or Beltaine Celtic Gaelic traditions in Ireland.
Edinburgh festival
Beltane Fire Festival dancers, 2006
A revived Beltane Fire Festival has been held every year since 1988 during the night of 30 April on Calton Hill in Edinburgh, Scotland and attended by up to 15,000 people (except in 2003 when local council restrictions forced the organisers to hold a private event elsewhere).

Gaelic diaspora and Beltane or Beltaine Celtic Gaelic traditions in Ireland.
The lighting of a community Bealtaine fire from which individual hearth fires are then relit is observed in modern times in some parts of the Gaelic diaspora, though in the majority of these cases this practice is a cultural revival rather than an unbroken survival of the ancient tradition.[6][4][11][12]
[edit] Neo-Paganism

Beltane is observed by Neopagans in various forms, and by a variety of names. As forms of Neopaganism can vary largely from tradition to tradition, representations can vary considerably despite the shared name. Some celebrate in a manner as close as possible to how the Ancient Celts and Living Celtic cultures have maintained the traditions, while others observe the holiday with rituals taken from numerous other unrelated sources, Celtic culture being only one of the sources used.[13][14]

Celtic Reconstructionist and Beltane or Beltaine Celtic Gaelic traditions in Ireland.
Like other Reconstructionist traditions, Celtic Reconstructionist Pagans place emphasis on historical accuracy. They base their celebrations and rituals on traditional lore from the living Celtic cultures, as well as research into the older beliefs of the polytheistic Celts.[15]

Celtic Reconstructionists usually celebrate Lá Bealtaine when the local hawthorn trees are in bloom, or on the full moon that falls closest to this event. Many observe the traditional bonfire rites, to whatever extent this is feasible where they live, including the dousing of the household hearth flame and relighting of it from the community festival fire. Some decorate May Bushes and prepare traditional festival foods. Pilgrimages to holy wells are traditional at this time, and offerings and prayers to the spirits or deities of the wells are usually part of this practice. Crafts such as the making of equal-armed rowan crosses are common, and often part of rituals performed for the blessing and protection of the household and land.[15][16][17]

Wicca and Beltane or Beltaine Celtic Gaelic traditions in Ireland.
Main article: Wheel of the Year
Wiccans and Wiccan-inspired Neopagans celebrate a variation of Beltane as a Sabbat, one of the eight solar holidays. Although the holiday may use features of the Gaelic Bealtaine, such as the bonfire, it bears more relation to the Germanic May Day festival, both in its significance (focusing on fertility) and its rituals (such as maypole dancing). Some Wiccans celebrate "High Beltaine" by enacting a ritual union of the May Lord and May Lady.[18]

Among the Wiccan Sabbats, Beltane is a cross-quarter day; it is celebrated in the northern hemisphere on 1 May and in the southern hemisphere on 1 November. Beltane follows Ostara and precedes Midsummer.[18]
Celtic calendar
Irish calendar
Holidays
Lughnasadh
Samhain
Imbolc
Other
Beltane Fire Festival

References
^ Dames (1992) p.214
^ Chadwick, Nora, The Celts, p. 181.
^ Aideen O'Leary reports ("An Irish Apocryphal Apostle: Muirchú's Portrayal of Saint Patrick" The Harvard Theological Review 89.3 [July 1996:287-301] p. 289) that, for didactic and dramatic purposes, the festival of Beltane, as presided over by Patrick's opponent King Lóegaire mac Néill, was moved to the eve of Easter and from Uisneach to Tara by Muirchú (late seventh century) in his Vita sancti Patricii; he describes the festival as in Temora, istorium Babylone ('at Tara, their Babylon'). However there is no authentic connection of Tara with Babylon, nor any know connection of Tara with Beltane.
^ a b c Danaher, Kevin (1972) The Year in Ireland: Irish Calendar Customs Dublin, Mercier. ISBN 1-85635-093-2 pp.86-127
^ Chadwick, Nora (1970) The Celts London, Penguin. ISBN 0-14-021211-6 p. 181
^ a b MacKillop, James (1998) A Dictionary of Celtic Mythology. Oxford, Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-280120-1 pp.39, 400-402, 421
^ McNeill (1959) Vol. 2. p.63
^ Campbell, John Gregorson (1900, 1902, 2005) The Gaelic Otherworld. Edited by Ronald Black. Edinburgh, Birlinn Ltd. ISBN 1-84158-207-7 p.552-4
^ MacKillop (1998) p.39
^ Delamarre, Xavier. Dictionnaire de la langue gauloise, Editions Errance, Paris, 2003, p. 70
^ Dames, Michael (1992) Mythic Ireland. London, Thames & Hudson ISBN 0-500-27872-5. p.206-10
^ McNeill, F. Marian (1959) The Silver Bough, Vol. 2. William MacLellan, Glasgow ISBN 0-85335-162-7 p.56
^ Adler, Margot (1979) Drawing Down the Moon: Witches, Druids, Goddess-Worshippers, and Other Pagans in America Today. Boston, Beacon Press ISBN 0-8070-3237-9. p.3
^ McColman, Carl (2003) Complete Idiot's Guide to Celtic Wisdom. Alpha Press ISBN 0-02-864417-4. p.51
^ a b McColman (2003) pp.12, 51
^ Bonewits, Isaac (2006) Bonewits's Essential Guide to Druidism. New York, Kensington Publishing Group ISBN 0-8065-2710-2. p.130-7
^ Healy, Elizabeth (2001) In Search of Ireland's Holy Wells. Dublin, Wolfhound Press ISBN 0-86327-865-5 p.27
^ a b Starhawk (1979, 1989) The Spiral Dance: A Rebirth of the Ancient Religion of the Great Goddess. New York, Harper and Row ISBN 0-06-250814-8 pp.181-196 (revised edition)

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