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Bloody Sunday catalyst image for the troubles

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Irish History Forum Discussion:     Bloody Sunday catalyst image for the troubles

Thirteen people were killed and 14 injured when British army paratroopers opened fire on a civil rights protest in the Bogside area of the city.
Bloody Sunday is the term used to describe an incident in Derry, the north of Ireland, on 30 January 1972 in which 26 civil rights protesters were shot by members of the 1st Battalion of the British Parachute Regiment led by Lieutenant-Colonel Derek Wilford and his second-in-command Captain [later General] Mike Jackson, who had joint responsibility for the operation, during a the north of Ireland Civil Rights Association march in the Bogside area of the city. Thirteen people, six of whom were minors, died immediately, while the death of another person 4½ months later has been attributed to the injuries he received on the day. Two protesters were injured when run down by army vehicles. Many witnesses including bystanders and journalists testify that all those shot were unarmed. Five of those wounded were shot in the back.
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Bloody Sunday most potent artistic catalyst of Troubles
THE Bloody Sunday atrocity in Derry in 1972 has spawned more songs, films and poems than any other atrocity of the Troubles, a new book claims.
The book, After Bloody Sunday, written by two British-based academics, examines how the fateful day has been portrayed in photography, film, theatre, poetry, documentaries, art exhibitions, murals and commemorative events.
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Co-author Tom Herron said there have been dozens of attempts to tell the truth of what really happened on the day. “The event has provoked more responses than any other atrocity of the Troubles, and each response has tried to construct its own version of what happened on January 30, 1972. The day still reverberates strongly in contemporary the north of Ireland society.”
The lecturer at Leeds Metropolitan University has family connections in Derry. University of Birmingham academic John Lynch co-wrote the book.
U2’s famous 1983 protest song, Sunday Bloody Sunday, was based on the atrocity and Paul McCartney, John Lennon, Christy Moore and Stiff Little Fingers were all also inspired by the events.
Bloody Sunday sparked the Paul Greengrass feature film Bloody Sunday, starring James Nesbitt, and the made-for-TV film, Sunday.
Poet Thomas Kinsella and playwrights Frank McGuinness and Brian Friel all explored the subject. Derry-born artist Willie Doherty has also amassed a large body of work on the atrocity.
Commemoration events are still held each year in Derry during which the families of the victims remember the dead and injured.
The play Bloody Sunday: Scenes from the Saville Inquiry — a dramatisation based on the Saville Inquiry — has run to audiences in Derry, London and Dublin.
The Saville Inquiry which heard testimony from 900 witnesses over seven years, is the biggest investigation in British legal history. It is due to issue its final report soon.

* After Bloody Sunday: Representation, Ethics and Justice is published this week by Cork University Press.
I'm Free Derry

Those murdered on bloody sunday in Derry by British forces of the crown
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* John (Jackie) Duddy (17). Shot in the chest in the car park of Rossville flats. Four witnesses stated Duddy was unarmed and running away from the paratroopers when he was killed. Three of them saw a soldier take deliberate aim at the youth as he ran. Uncle of Irish boxer John Duddy
* Patrick Joseph Doherty (31). Shot from behind while attempting to crawl to safety in the forecourt of Rossville flats. Doherty was the subject of a series of photographs, taken before and after he died by French journalist Gilles Peress. Despite testimony from "Soldier F" that he had fired at a man holding and firing a pistol, Widgery acknowledged that the photographs showed Doherty was unarmed, and that forensic tests on his hands for gunshot residue proved negative.
* Bernard McGuigan (41). Shot in the back of the head when he went to help Patrick Doherty. He had been waving a white handkerchief at the soldiers to indicate his peaceful intentions.
* Hugh Pious Gilmour (17). Shot in the chest as he ran from the paratroopers on Rossville Street. Widgery acknowledged that a photograph taken seconds after Gilmour was hit corroborated witness reports that he was unarmed, and that tests for gunshot residue were negative.
* Kevin McElhinney (17). Shot from behind while attempting to crawl to safety at the front entrance of the Rossville Flats. Two witnesses stated McElhinney was unarmed.
* Michael G. Kelly (17). Shot in the stomach while standing near the rubble barricade in front of Rossville Flats. Widgery accepted that Kelly was unarmed.
* John Pius Young (17). Shot in the head while standing at the rubble barricade. Two witnesses stated Young was unarmed.
* William Noel Nash (19). Shot in the chest near the barricade. Witnesses stated Nash was unarmed and going to the aid of another when killed.
* Michael M. McDaid (20). Shot in the face at the barricade as he was walking away from the paratroopers. The trajectory of the bullet indicated he could have been killed by soldiers positioned on the Derry Walls.
* James Joseph Wray (22). Wounded then shot again at close range while lying on the ground. Witnesses who were not called to the Widgery Tribunal stated that Wray was calling out to say that he could not move his legs before he was shot the second time.
* Gerald Donaghy (17). Shot in the stomach while attempting to run to safety between Glenfada Park and Abbey Park. Donaghy was brought to a nearby house by bystanders where he was examined by a doctor. His pockets were turned out in an effort to identify him. A later police photograph of Donaghy's corpse showed nail bombs in his pockets. Neither those who searched his pockets in the house nor the British army medical officer (Soldier 138) who pronounced his death shortly afterwards say they saw any bombs. Donaghy had been a member of Fianna Éireann, an IRA-linked Republican youth movement.[10] Paddy Ward, who gave evidence at the Saville Inquiry, claimed that he had given two nail bombs to Donaghy several hours before he was shot dead.
* Gerald (James) McKinney (34). Shot just after Gerald Donaghy. Witnesses stated that McKinney had been running behind Donaghy, and he stopped and held up his arms, shouting "Don't shoot! Don't shoot!", when he saw Donaghy fall. He was then shot in the chest.
* William A. McKinney (27). Shot from behind as he attempted to aid Gerald McKinney (no relation). He had left cover to try to help the older man.
* John Johnson (59). Shot on William Street 15 minutes before the rest of the shooting started. Johnson died of his wounds 4½ months later, the only one not to die immediately or soon after being shot.

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